Sardines (also known as pilchards) are small oily fishes that move in packs. They are highly nutritious and widely consumed by humans, larger fishes, marine mammals, and seabirds. Research has shown that they can live for as long as fourteen years. Sardines are extremely valuable food fish. They are found in the shores of every continent.

They move in large quantities ranging from thousands to billions. Sardines adapt well in water temperatures between 14 and 20 °C. Thus, when the water temperature becomes too high, they migrate to a more conducive environment.
During migration, they move in a close pack. This serves as a defense mechanism against prey. A calm sea current condition, Stable atmospheric conditions, Light north-westerly land breezes (sardines migrates north-wards) exacts a positive influence on the presence of sardine.

While the presence of Increasing sea surface temperature, Moderate north to south currents, Large swells and Turbid water exacts a negative influence on its presence.


Sardines are one of the healthiest foods that can be consumed. They are fished for two major reasons; to be used as bait or food.

  • Sardines are highly nutritious. They are a major source of omega-3 fatty acids that help prevent mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. The Omega-3 fatty acid in sardines is also known to break down cholesterol hence, preventing heart diseases.
  • This type of fish also helps to reduce blood pressure and also reduce the possibility of the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease.
  •  Sardine Fish oil helps to promote brain cells Thus promoting the functionality of the brain.
  • Sardines are low in calorie content but high in nutritional content. This makes it suitable for weight loss.
  • A large amount of calcium that helps in the development of strong and healthy teeth and bones are found in the edible bones of sardines.
  • Sardines can be eaten either as a whole dish or as a complement to other dishes. They can also be prepared in different ways.
  • Insulin resistance which is a major factor of diabetes can be controlled by consuming sardines.
  • A healthy skin glow can also be achieved by consuming sardine.
  • Trace metals such as selenium found in sardines’ act as antioxidants.
  • The high concentration of protein and fats found in sardine work together to slow down the rate at which sugar is absorbed into the blood.
  • Sardine is a great source of essential vitamins. It is rich in vitamin B12 hence ranking as one of the healthiest food in the world. It also has a high concentration of major minerals such as magnesium, potassium, calcium, and some trace minerals such as iron and selenium.
  • They are often packed in cans, salted, pickled, fried, grilled or smoked.
  • The oil (fish oil) gotten from sardine after it has been reduced by drying or smoking can be used in the manufacture of paint, polish, and linoleum.
  • The level of toxin such as mercury found in sardine is low and this is because they are close to the bottom of the food chain.

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